Funded PhD Studentship on Indyref 2014

ARCHIVE AND NARRATIVE
IN THE 2014 SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE REFERENDUM

AHRC COLLABORATIVE DOCTORAL PARTNERSHIP
(SCOTTISH CULTURAL HERITAGE CONSORTIUM)

Application deadline: 8 May 2017

The Faculty of Arts and Humanities is pleased to invite applications for this fully-funded AHRC PhD Studentship (fees and subsistence at current AHRC UK/EU rates). The studentship includes a 6-month placement at the National Library of Scotland.

The Studentship: 

The 2014 referendum on Scottish independence was clearly a major historic event. How will it enter the historical archive, and the stories told by future researchers and citizens about the meaning of ‘indyref’ 2014?

This PhD project will explore a series of questions and challenges related to the National Library of Scotland’s ‘Collecting the Referendum’ project, an ambitious two-year project to collect the documentary record of this event in a wide range of formats: print and digital, social media and websites, archives and moving image.

These questions include: 

  • To what extent, and via what practices, was the indyref ‘remembered’ even as it was being experienced? (That is, how did campaigners and commentators try to position 2014 within stories looking back on it from the future?)
  • How was the indyref collected (and made collectible) in the midst of the campaign?
  • How did its self-conscious ‘historic’ quality affect the way indyref 2014 was documented and recorded?
  • How will future researchers interpret records and narratives of 2014 which exhibit this self-conscious ‘historic’ quality, i.e. which seem to ‘memorialise’ indyref in advance?

The student’s doctoral work will investigate both the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of indyref collecting. It will examine how archives of the 2014 referendum are constructed and used (both physical and digital), and the various factors that shape how the makers and users of such collections view the narrative possibilities and complexities presented by their materials.

While the student will have freedom to shape the exact parameters of the project, it is likely to involve research into recent Scottish political history, archive studies and digital collecting. Some awareness of relevant cultural and narrative theory, and digital humanities research methods, is preferred but not required.

The PhD student will be jointly supervised by Dr Scott Hames at the University of Stirling and Dr Amy Todman at the National Library of Scotland, with input from a wider supervisory team including Dr Peter Lynch (Stirling; expert on Scottish politics and referendums) and Eilidh MacGlone (NLS web archivist). Collaboration with the Scottish Political Archive, based at the University of Stirling, is an additional dimension of the project, supported by our archivist Sarah Bromage.

At Stirling, the student will join a lively community of PhD students linked to the Stirling Centre for Scottish Studies. At the National Library of Scotland, he or she will have the opportunity to work closely with curators and web archivists, and gain valuable research and technical skills.

How to Apply: Applicants should have a good undergraduate qualification and a relevant Master’s degree in any related field of expertise. Experience of the following areas of study is particularly welcome: history, archive studies, politics, cultural theory, digital humanities, cultural studies, Scottish studies. You will have some experience of relevant research methods (but note that research training is a key part of the studentship).

NB the AHRC rules governing this scheme note that if a student does not have experience of formal postgraduate study, they may be eligible for a studentship only if they can demonstrate evidence of sustained experience beyond undergraduate degree level that is specifically relevant to their proposed research topic, and could be considered equivalent to Master’s studyApplicants in this category (i.e. without a Master’s qualification) should include with their application a 1-page statement outlining the ‘specifically relevant’ skills, experience and knowledge they have gained ‘beyond undergraduate degree level’, that ‘could be considered equivalent to Master’s study’.

For further details on eligibility criteria, including UK residency, applicants should check the AHRC website (http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/).

The application: Applicants should submit:

  • a summary curriculum vitae (max 2 pages)
  • an example of recent academic writing (e.g., MSc/MLitt chapter or undergraduate dissertation)
  • a short statement (1 page) outlining your qualification for the studentship, and initial thoughts on how you’d approach the project
  • the names and contact details of two academic referees

Submit your application via email to Dr Scott Hames (scott.hames@stir.ac.uk) and Dr Amy Todman (a.todman@nls.uk). Applications will close 8 May 2017 at 4pm. Please ensure your referees are able to provide (on request, via email) an academic reference by 19 May, 5pm.

As noted above, applicants without a Master’s qualification should submit an additional 1-page statement outlining their ‘specifically relevant’ skills, experience and knowledge that could be considered equivalent to Master’s study.

Interviews will be held on Tuesday 23 May at the University of Stirling.

Potential applicants are strongly encouraged to contact Dr Scott Hames (scott.hames@stir.ac.uk) and Dr Amy Todman (a.todman@nls.uk) for ‘further particulars’ of the project, or with informal queries.

New Scottish Studies Research Group

ERIN FARLEY

Last week saw the first meeting of the Stirling Scottish Studies Research Group – intended as a friendly space for people working on Scottish-related topics to share their research, ideas and questions. At each meeting, a Stirling researcher will give an informal talk on their recent work, followed by group discussion. We aim to become an interdisciplinary support network, where we can share skills and knowledge and keep up to date with each other’s work.

Our first speaker was my fellow first-year PhD candidate, Félix Flores Varona, whose work centres on the Cuban national hero, journalist, poet and political theorist José Martí, and his relationships with various Scottish writers. This research is part of a wider view of Martí’s relationship with the culture of the British Isles – Félix’s Masters thesis focused on Irish connections, and he will follow the Scottish research with a study of Martí’s English interests.

JoseMarti4_jpg

José Martí (1853-1895)

Though his name may be unfamiliar to Scottish literature researchers, Martí’s detailed writings detailing his visit to Abbotsford – as yet unpublished – have proved invaluable to scholars of Walter Scott. Martí was not the only cultural link between nineteenth-century Cuba and Scotland. As Félix explained, other Cuban writers had translated Scott and Stevenson, and worked Scottish historical legends into their writing – but Martí was particularly prolific in his journalism, translation and criticism of Scottish authors.

Among the many writers Martí discussed were Margaret Oliphant, Henry Drummond (local to Stirling), and Gorbals author Alan Pinkerton (born 1819.) Pinkerton’s authorship has been disputed – he was accused of using ghostwriters – and his role as the founder of spy agency the Pinkertons has overshadowed his literary reputation. Ironically, during the Cuban War of Independence, the United States government had Martí investigated – by the Pinkertons.

Jose-Marti stamp

Cuban stamp celebrating Martí, 1995

Martí is remembered as an all-round cultural figure: as well as his prolific journalism and political work, he is hailed as a key founder of modernism in Latin America. This range of roles and writing styles means that Félix is having to familiarise himself with a range of disciplines, shifting from literary criticism to theories of translation and histories of journalism. The necessity of cross-disciplinary research is familiar to most members of the research group, and the more experienced researchers were able to offer Félix guidance on how to go about this.

For our next meeting, which will take place on Monday 2 May, in Pathfoot A7 at 6pm, I will be talking about the early stages of my own research into popular poetry and song communities in nineteenth-century Dundee, work which has so far incorporated literary, historical and folklore methods. We invite all members of the Stirling research community with an interest in Scottish topics to attend, and we look forward to the future conversations this group may open up.

Scottish Literature at Stirling

Image

A few pics of recent events and guest speakers from the Scottish literary scene.

Clockwise from top left: our Professor of Poetry, Kathleen Jamie, after teaching a Master’s seminar on Scottish poetry and landscape; poet and artist Harry Giles, speaking to undergraduates studying literature in Scots and non-standard Englishes; Janice Galloway and a long queue of fans after her guest lecture on the second-year ‘Writing and Identity’ module; small-group teaching on the MLitt in Modern Scottish Writing.

A common curriculum? School textbooks in early nineteenth-century Scotland

HELEN YOUNG

How and what children are taught in school continues to be a key societal concern, with debates around national curricula and exam results never far from the headlines. Yet, despite this enduring interest people rarely take more than a cursory historical view of the issue. Eager to show the relevance of history to current policy discourse, this blog explores the use of printed materials in schools across Scotland during the early nineteenth century and highlights the potential for further research.Schoolmasters image

Drawing on analysis of a quasi-random sample [1] of Scottish rural schools, which forms the core part of an ESRC-funded doctoral study of the small rural school and community relations in Scotland from 1872 to 2000, particular reference is made to the Schoolmasters’ Return of 1838 (published in 1841) which includes details of the textbooks utilised by teachers at this time.[2]

Prior to the Education (Scotland) Act of 1872, the education system in Scotland was far from uniform. With a mix of different schools, ranging from the parochial to private adventure, inconsistencies in provision became a paramount concern during the nineteenth century and provided the rationale for a national system of public schools. Instituted by the 1872 Act, this state-governed system quickly led to the standardization of educational policy and practice across Scotland and impacted on all aspects of provision, including teacher training and curricula. Under the direction of Her Majesty’s Inspectorate and with the threat of loss of revenue, schools were rapidly brought in line with national standards and uniformity prevailed. While the contrast with the earlier situation is clear, a closer look at the schools of the early nineteenth century suggests that they had more in common with their successors than is often understood. In terms of the subjects being taught this is certainly the case and an examination of the 1838 survey of schoolmasters reveals that a select number of textbooks were being used by parochial and non-parochial teachers alike.

Prose collection (1)

Encompassing fifty-nine rural parishes from across Scotland, including lowland and highland areas, the sample is intended to give a national perspective on local experience, and analysis of the 1838 return offers a rare glimpse of educational practice in the small rural schools at this time. Across the sample, sixty-three replies were received from parochial schoolmasters (all of whom were men) and sixty from non-parochial teachers (with a small number of women in their ranks).[3] The schools under their charge varied from scholarly establishments aspiring to set local lads on the path to university to dame schools providing infant care and instruction. Unsurprisingly, most sat somewhere in-between, offering rural scholars a basic but seemingly beneficial education. With no uniform system in place and no prescribed curriculum, beyond the use of core religious texts such as the Shorter Catechism, schoolmasters and mistresses had a degree of freedom in choosing how and what to teach. Although limited by the requirements of their employers, who ranged from parish officials to parents and had varying ideas about what should be taught, teachers therefore played an important role in shaping the curriculum within their schools.

A key part of this was the selection and use of textbooks and other printed works. A vast array of literature was in circulation in the early nineteenth century, and numerous volumes aimed at the instruction of the young had been printed. Yet, distribution across Scotland was in no way uniform, and access to such materials in the more remote, rural areas would have been limited.

3

For the non-parochial teachers in particular, books would have been an expensive luxury, and even in the parish schools a supply of appropriate printed resources was in no way guaranteed. The prohibitive cost of books was certainly a common frustration, and this was expressed by a number of teachers including the parish schoolmaster of Dornock, Dumfries, who felt that ‘a better and cheaper set of books is much wanted’, and the teacher of Borerary Society School in Duirinish, Inverness, who regretted that he had ‘found it impracticable to introduce a regular set of elementary books, owing chiefly to the poverty of the people’. In light of this, it seems reasonable to assume that instruction varied widely between schools, with no common curriculum beyond the Biblical texts. Yet, while the replies to the 1838 questionnaire do reveal a kaleidoscope of schools and teachers across rural Scotland, they also show that a select number of academic textbooks were in widespread use by the 1830s.

According to the return, the most common subjects taught were English reading, writing and arithmetic, but a considerable number of teachers also offered book-keeping, mensuration (the measurement of shapes), geography, mathematics and Latin. Gaelic was taught in most of the Highland schools (25 of those sampled), and in some parishes navigation and land-surveying were also considered of value. Interestingly, in contrast to the parish schools, most non-parochial establishments did not teach history as a distinct subject, an omission which a teacher in Fintry, Stirling, put down to the fact that ‘the parents seem unwilling to purchase text-books for history’. While some schools were clearly better resourced, with numerous books being used across a wide range of subjects, most had access to some primers and the same titles appear time and time again.

The following table shows the number of schools using textbooks for the different subjects.

table1

Breaking these figures down by county does show some variation across Scotland, with those in the more remote counties, and certainly the insular parishes, being less likely to have a selection of textbooks, and the schools in Forfar and Haddington being particularly well-resourced.[4] Nevertheless, access to core English and arithmetic texts was near universal. To give some examples, the most popular texts for English were the Parochial Schoolmasters’ series produced by the Scottish School Book Association, Lennie’s English Grammar and spelling books, and Dr Thomson’s reading lessons. For arithmetic, the books of Bonnycastle, Gray, Hamilton, Melrose, Ingram, Davidson, and Hutton were in widespread use, and Playfair’s expression of Euclid seems to have been a favourite of parochial schoolmasters.

In those schools offering Latin, Ruddiman’s Rudiments was commonly to be found and geography books by Ewing, Murray, Reid and Stewart were favoured by most teachers. Where history was taught, Goldsmith’s abridgement of the histories of England, Rome and Greece was the most used text, but similar works focusing on history of Scotland were also referenced. One of these, pictured below, charted this history from the origin of the Scots to the ‘accession of James to the throne of England’, and dwelt almost exclusively on the manoeuvres, marriages and misfortunes of the monarchy.

Mary

While the presence of textbooks in schools tells us little about how they were used or the way in which the content was conveyed to pupils, the fact that both parochial and non-parochial teachers across the country had access to similar texts is undoubtedly significant. Of course much more in-depth analysis of the material in question and its application (which is particularly hard to glean from the sources) is needed to understand the true educational impact of this. However, the very suggestion that there was something of a common school curriculum decades before a national system was introduced, and years before Her Majesty’s Inspectors of Schools began to exercise influence, is enough to whet the appetite for further research.

NOTES

[1] Quasi-random essentially means being as close to a random sample as you can get for this kind of data. A list of rural school board districts was compiled and sorted alphabetically by county and name. Every 10th one was then selected for the sample.

[2] Answers made by schoolmasters in Scotland to queries circulated in 1838, by order of the Select Committee on Education in Scotland, Parliamentary Papers, 1841 Session 1 (64).

[3] A further twenty schools were sent the queries but did not reply (nine parochial and eleven non-parochial), and this unfortunately means that there is no information for four of the parishes.

[4] As the sample sizes for each county vary, it is difficult to make direct comparison between them. However, this does give an indication of the distribution of books. Analysis of the complete dataset would clearly be worthwhile.

Edited by Katy Jack.